Slovenský národopis 3/2016

Jesenné číslo Slovenského národopisu je venované 70. výročiu Ústavu etnológie SAV a téme Aktuálne metodologické prístupy a témy v etnologickom/antropologickom bádaní. Pripravili ho hosťujúce redaktorky Soňa G. Lutherová, Miroslava Hlinčíková a Ľubica Voľanská.
 

Obsah

 
Téma čísla: Aktuálne metodologické prístupy a témy v etnologickom/antropologickom bádaní
 

Editoriál

LUTHEROVÁ, G. Soňa, HLINČÍKOVÁ, Miroslava, VOĽANSKÁ, Ľubica: Aktuálne metodologické prístupy a témy v etnologickom/antropologickom bádaní

Štúdie

ENDTER, Cordula: Starnutie s „dopomocou“ – účasť starších ľudí v projektoch vyvíjajúcich technické zariadenia pre seniorov. Príklad Ambient Assisted Living

LUTHEROVÁ, Soňa G.: (Ne)viditeľní: Transrodové deti na základných a stredných školách

MIŠKOVSKÁ, Kristína, BUDZELOVÁ, Zuzana, JEROTIJEVIĆ, Danijela: Možnosti využitia modelových situácií (vinet) v antropologickom výskume morálnych postojov

FICERI, Ondrej: Teórie etnickej identity Kanchan Chandrovej a národnej indiferencie a možnosti ich uplatnenia pri historickom i etnologickom výskume jazykovo-kultúrne heterogénneho obyvateľstva juhoslovenských regiónov a miest

DITMAROVÁ, Lucia: „To nie je nijaká fáma, to je krutá realita“. Súčasné povesti a fámy v prostredí OZ Proti prúdu

BÍROVÁ, Barbora: „Vy jste takové kouzelné děvčátko.“: O formách násilia vo výskume zameranom na bezdomovectvo
 

Esej

VANĚK, Miroslav: Orální historie – naslouchání, porozumění, hledání
 

Rozhovor

BAHNA, Vladimír: Laboratórium pre experimentálne humanitné vedy. Rozhovor s Evou Kundtovou Klocovou
 

Vyhradené pre

Vklad Boženy Filovej do rozvoja národopisnej vedy na Slovensku

BURLASOVÁ, Soňa: Nové výskumné trendy v práci Boženy Filovej

BENŽA, Mojmír: Božena Filová ako riaditeľka

SALNER, Peter: Rodina ako (osobná a odborná) priorita Boženy Filovej

Recenzie

Jana Pospíšilová (Ed.), Karel Altman (Ed.): Děti v Brně. Kapitoly o dětství ve městě pod Špilberkem  (Katarína RABATINOVÁ)

Recenzie bez jubilea – práce Ilony L. Juhász (Marta BOTÍKOVÁ):
Ilona L. Juhász: A harmincnégyes kőnél… aláljelek és halálhely jelek az utak mentén. (Pri cestnom kameni číslo tridsaťštyri – prícestné pamätníky a pomníky tragicky zosnulých) (Marta BOTÍKOVÁ)

Ilona L. Juhász: Amikor mindenki a háborús állapotok igája alatt roskadoz… Erdélyi menekültek a mai Szlovákia területén. Adalékok az első világháborús migráció történetéhez. (Sedmohradskí utečenci na území dnešného Slovenska. Príspevok k histórii migrácie počas 1. svetovej vojny) (Izabela DANTEROVÁ)

Zuzana Profantová: Žili sme v socializme II. Helena. (Biografický prístup v etnológii každodennosti) (Magda PARÍKOVÁ)

 

Správy

JANTO, JURAJ: Dr. h. c. prof. PhDr. Ján Podolák, DrSc. – 90-ročný „Z roľníckeho ľudu som vyšiel, jeho kultúru a spôsob života po celý život skúmam...“

POPELKOVÁ, Katarína: Slávnostný Laudačný deň k 70. výročiu založenia Ústavu etnológie SAV v Bratislave (17. jún 2016, Bratislava)

ZVALENÁ, Mária: Správa z podujatia FOLK EXPO SLOVAKIA 2016 – Nová platforma pre folklórny priemysel (3. – 4. jún 2016, Bratislava–Rusovce)

KADLECOVÁ, Tatiana: Medzinárodná konferencia Mezi státním plánem a badatelskou svobodou. Etnologie ve střední Evropě v letech 1945 – 1989 (17. – 18. marec 2016, Praha, Česká republika)

DENKOVÁ, Zuzana: Etnológ v teréne/ k prameňom poznania – 20. ročník konferencie Etnológ a múzeum (21. – 23. jún 2016, Banská Štiavnica)

 
 

Abstrakty:

 

ENDTER, Cordula: Starnutie s „dopomocou“ – účasť starších ľudí v projektoch vyvíjajúcich technické zariadenia pre seniorov. Príklad Ambient Assisted Living

 
One of the strategies of successful coping with the challenges of population ageing is the development of assistance systems for elderly people. Thanks to them they can live in their own households for the longest time possible. This paper is based on an ethnographic case study and explains the ways elderly people are involved in the development of intelligent assistance systems. On the basis of participatory observation and qualitative interviews, it can be concluded that the participation of elderly people in the designof technological devices often happens at the final stage of approval of technical prototypes, as a result of which the perspective of the testing users cannot be appropriately considered in the prototype design. This means that the appearance and functions of the technical facilities are based mainly on the cultural premises and designers’ perceptions of the old age and ageing, and less on the experience and needs of their future users. The contribution observes this tension in relationships through ethnography.

Key words: old age, ageing, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), users’ involvement, participation in design, Ageskript

 
LUTHEROVÁ, Soňa G.: (Ne)viditeľní: Transrodové deti na základných a stredných školách
 
The process of gender identity development in children and youth affects their daily life. With their very existence, transgender children confront the common notions of the majority about “right” boys and girls. There is a persistent pressure in different areas of social life and at schools they visit on preserving the cisnormative way of life. The study is based on a year-long research of transgender children and youth at elementary and secondary schools in Slovakia, with the support of the civic association TransFúzia. The research material consists of in-depth interviews with ten children and young people and interviews with the representatives and teachers from three selected secondary schools. The research results suggest that the selfrealisation of children in a school environment is influenced by various limits and barriers. These, however, arise not only from the official systemic framework for teaching and the education process in Slovakia, but also from individual notions and approaches by school authorities. The personal stories of seeking their own “self” of transgender children and youth therefore develop in different contexts and under different conditions. They present not only the specific situation of the members of this special minority, but create the image of the daily life of children and youth in a school environment.

Key words: gender identity, transgender young people, school environment, cisnormativity, applied anthropology

MIŠKOVSKÁ, Kristína, BUDZELOVÁ, Zuzana, JEROTIJEVIĆ, Danijela: Možnosti využitia modelových situácií (vinet) v antropologickom výskume morálnych postojov
 
Labels describe a fictitious situation which the contact person is supposed to asses and take a certain position. They represent a suitable complementary method of qualitative research. While in psychology they can be used as a tool for predicting behaviour, in anthropology and ethnology they can be used to study norms, perceptions or attitudes. The aim of this text is to show in what way they can be linked to other types of qualitative data (participatory observation, semi-structured interviews) through an example of a long-term anthropological research studying political preferences and moral attitudes. The principal research assumption is based on Jonathan Haidt’s concept, according to which self-declared political preferences (whether an individual is considered conservative or liberal) are reflected in the sphere of moral emotions, in particular in the emotion of disgust. The results of the analysis show that all politically self-declared groups reflect morally unacceptable behaviour. The biggest difference between conservative and liberal contacts was observed with respect to sexuality (e.g. sexual behaviour, registered partnerships). The text points out the methodological limits of model situations: they can problematise the situations which individuals have not faced yet, as a result of which they can judge a fictitious and a real-life situation differently.

Key words: methodology, model situations, emotions, disgust, labels, political attitude
 
FICERI, Ondrej: Teórie etnickej identity Kanchan Chandrovej a národnej indiferencie a možnosti ich uplatnenia pri historickom i etnologickom výskume jazykovo-kultúrne heterogénneho obyvateľstva juhoslovenských regiónov a miest
 
Slovak and Hungarian social sciences have paid sufficient attention to research on the transformation of the ethnic identities of people living mainly in ethnically mixed regions and towns of southern Slovakia. In the course of the 20th century, the affected population switched its ethnic identification codes depending on the assimilation political practices or the ethnic policy of the respective state authorities. The aim of this paper is to point out, through the theory of ethnic identity by political scientist Kanchan Chandra from New York (2012), the possibilities of applying an innovative analytical language to the historical and current research of assimilation processes, which enable a more exact grasping of the mechanisms of ethno-cultural changes in the southern Slovakian region heterogenous in terms of language and culture. The inhabitants of this type of regions and towns were easily ethnicised given their potential to become holders of several types of nominal ethnic identities which were activated (assimilation) or deactivated (dissimilation) depending on the situation in various contexts of the daily public and private life. This “non-national” behaviour of the population (ethnical practice) had a causal influence on the current ethnic structure of the “lost” or “recovered” town, which can be interpreted as an expression of national indifference – the concept advocated by social scientists Tara Zahra, Jeremy King or Pieter Judson.

Key words: Constructivist theories of ethnic identity, national indifference, regions
and towns heterogeneous in terms of language and culture, urban history, southern Slovakia
 
DITMAROVÁ, Lucia: „To nie je nijaká fáma, to je krutá realita“. Súčasné povesti a fámy v prostredí OZ Proti prúdu
 
The text focuses on the contemporary legends and rumours as a current genre in the present-day society. I see these narratives as texts which can be studied and analysed at several levels depending on the context of narration, and I assume that the social context influences the content and the form of these narratives.
The main aim of the text is to highlight the theoretical and methodological specificities of the ethnographic research of contemporary legends and rumours within the OZ (Civic Organisation) Proti Prúdu and the influences of this specific context on these narratives in the context of the daily life of sellers of the Nota Bene magazine – clients of the OZ Proti Prúdu organisation. Through several examples of narratives, the context of which depends on the given environment, I seek to point out in what way individuals can indirectly react to daily life within their particular environment.

Key words: contemporary legend, rumour, context, Nota Bene magazine, OZ Proti prúdu
 
BÍROVÁ, Barbora: „Vy jste takové kouzelné děvčátko.“: O formách násilia vo výskume zameranom na bezdomovectvo

The study focuses on the process of ethnographic field research among homeless people from the perspective of researcher. It presents methodological approaches vis-á-vis initial ideas about the field research before going out to the field. The study covers the problematic aspects of the course of the research, from entry in the field up to the generation of data in relation to the changing positionality of the researcher. It shows how the relationship between the contact persons and the researcher changes in a given situation on the basis of the different characteristic features of the public and the private space and the forms of power that affect this space. Emphasis is placed on gender issues in the field and on how this fact influences the field research, contacts and the researcher. It describes the various forms and contexts of violence, from symbolic up to sexual ones. The study asks questions about how violence can be minimised during field research, and offers proposals for solutions.

Key words: violence, gender, homelessness, power
 

ESEJ

VANĚK, Miroslav: Orální historie – naslouchání, porozumění, hledání
 
This article brings a reflection about some contemporary problems of oral history. The author studies the present-day situation where, on one hand, oral history is becoming popular, as people do need stories; on the other hand, they are getting away from the “art” of telling life stories or from being willing to listen to them. The study thus addresses the issue of the hasty nature of this era, efforts to simplify it and the short-cuts in telling stories. The author also deals with some methodological topics which were not accentuated much in the past, in particular the issue of subjectivity, memory and their roles in the shaping of life stories and the issue of the social and political context (past and present) in which interviews were made. He subsequently reflects on the development of oral history in the Central European context and on influences by other disciplines. The text also deals with certain over-production of oral history at present. The author
seeks an answer to several fundamental questions: Does oral history experience a real boom today, or is it just temporary fashion? Is everything that “looks like” oral history oral history in reality? Isn’t it just about accumulation of dozens of useless conversations without understanding this specific source? Does the present threaten oral history and oral historians? If yes, to what extent? What role is played by the political, social and economic situation of the narrators in constructing their own interviews?

Key words: digital revolution, the ethics of research, inter-disciplinary approach, oral history

Menu?: 
Nie